Profile of Gunung Walat University Forest
Gunung Walat University Forest (GWUF) , as large as 359 ha, is located in subdistricts of Cibadak and Cicantayan, District of Sukabumi, approximately 50 km from Bogor town. GWUF is within territory of state forest established by Forestry Minister through decree of SK Menhut No. 188/Menhut-II/2005 Jo SK Menhut No. 702/Menhut-II/2009 as forest territory with specific purpose (KHDTK) as education and training forest whose management is delegated to Faculty of Forestry, IPB.
GWUF is managed by Faculty of Forestry, IPB since the year 1968, where initially it was an enclave surrounded by villages and people’s farmland. At that time, Gunung Walat forest area was neglected land, mostly in the form of bush and open land with agathis stand of only several hectares. Since being managed by Faculty of Forestry, there were gradual planting activities conducted by forestry students of IPB and local community. In the year 1980, the whole territory had been completely planted and continues to develop into dense forest. Results of stand inventory in the year 2011 showed that GWUF possessed wood potency as large as 398,55 m3/ha (or with total volume of 143,079.45 m3), biomass potency as large as 198,32 ton/ha (or with total biomass of 71,196.88 ton), and potency of carbon storage of 93,21 ton/ha (or with total carbon storage of 33,462.39 ton).
At present, forest cover in GWUF has reached more than 95 % with various tree species, namely dammar (Agathis lorantifolia), pine (Pinus merkusii), puspa (Schima wallichii), African wood (maesopsis eminii), mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), rasamala (Altingia excelsa), sonokeling (Dalbergia latifolia), Gliricidae sp, moluccan sau (Paraserianthes falcataria), meranti (Shorea sp), and mangium (Acacia mangium).
With the existence of such forest with good condition, there appeared at least seven water springs which flow the whole year fulfilling the needs of local people and irrigate agricultural lands / wetland paddy field. Because in GWUF there are no logging and thinning activities, the structure of the forest develops resembling with that of natural forest (close to natural forest).
In the area of GWUF, there are various kinds of wild animals, comprising species of mammals, reptiles, birds and fishes. Among the mammal group there are among others wild boar (Sus scrofa), long tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis), wild rabbit (Nesolagus sp), jungle cat (Felis bengalensis), squirrel (Callociurus sp.J), pangolin (Manis javanica), and civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditic). Among the bird species (Aves) there are at least 83 species of birds, which are among others Javanese eagle, and bulbul. The reptile species are among others monitor lizard, snakes and chameleon.
Model of Management
As university forest, GWUF possesses the vision of “Creating Gunung Walat University Forest (GWUF) as media with international reputation for implementing Three Services of University, by Faculty of Foresty, Bogor Agricultural University to achieve sustainable forest management”.
For achieving that vision, there is a need to develop three dimensions of management which is conducted in integrated manner, namely: Management of Forest Resources, ManagementofThree Services of University, and Management of Business.
GWUF attempts to apply the concept of Sustainable Small Scale Forest Management (SSSFM), without logging and relying on NTFP (Non Timber Forest Products and Environmental Services). The concept of SFM is applied as ideal as possible so that in the long term, forest sustainability could support the sustainability of forest management (Sustainable Management of Forest – SMF).
PERFORMANCE OF SSSFM (Sustainable Small Scale Forest Management) AND SSSMF (Sustainable Small Scale Management of Forest).
- Management of Forest Resources, comprising : management of production / economy, management of ecology, and management of social affairs.
- Management of production, comprising development and improvement of forest resources (planting and maintenance of stand) and utilization of non wood forest products in the form of pine resin (production of 100 – 150 tons/year) and copal resin (production of 10 – 20 tons/year).
- Social management, comprising: involvement of 50 – 60 local people around GWUF as resin tapper (40 households), involvement of 15 households in agroforestry activities, distribution of tree planting stocks for people’s private owned forest, etc.
- Ecological management: policy of not practicing any logging, management of water resources for local people, etc.
- Management of three services of university, comprising facilitation of education, research and community services.
- In the field of education and research, GWUF has become the site for practical classes, field trips, researches and learning media for students from Indonesia and abroad (Germany, Korea, Japan, USA, Malaysia, etc), and for various training classes.
- Community services which are integrated with social management.
- Business management, comprising businesses which are based on non timber forest products (NTFP), environmental services (carbon trading, tourism), and education and training services.
- Business management of NTFP, for the time being is marketing of pine resin and copal (agathis resin).
- Tourism programs being developed are those which are based on environmental education, sport based tourism, (outbond, mountain bike, tracking, caving), and tourism based on traditional culture of local people.
- Carbon trading with voluntary scheme in particular definite period with multinational companies :
- a. TOSO Company Limited from Japan, plants 11.800 pine & agathis trees (2009 – 2019) for increasing carbon absorption.
- b. Conoco Phillips Indonesia, plants 7.000 pine trees, agathis, coffee, etc. (2009 – 2014) for increasing carbon absorption to commemorate world environment day.
- c. NYK Group Japan, plants 2.600 pine and fruit trees (2009 – 2013) to increase carbon absorption.
At present, GWUF has developed into model of small scale forest management which is independent, self sustaining and based on non timber forest management (NTFP) and environmental services. Business income for GWUF come from NTFP (54%) ; and environmental, education and training services. GWUF has been able to be free from financial reliance on budget from government or Faculty of Forestry institution. Even GWUF has been able to contribute subsidy for conducting three services of university by college students, school students and the general public.
Those phenomena and facts give definite conclusion that:
- a. Sustainable forest management does not have requirement to be conducted in large scale.
- b. Non timber forest economic value could be relied upon to support the sustainability of forest resources (SSSFM) and sustainability of forest management (SSSMF).
- c. Conservation / ecology and economy are not antagonistic to each other, but the two saspect could be harmonized through appropriate management design.